English

PATHOANATOMY DEPARTMENT 
WITH FORENSIC MEDISINE AND SECTIONAL COURSE 

Address: Ruska Str. , 12, Ternopil, 46008

вулиця Руська, 12


Tel .: (0352) 525844
E-mail: patol_anat@tdmu.edu.ua 
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    THE HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT


The Department of Pathology with the sectional course dates back to the founding of the institute in 1957, and the department of forensic medicine  - to 1959. In 1978 the departments united into one training partition.


    The first members of the department of pathological anatomy were: Head of the Department and Dean Mykola Valchuk and Boris Dubchak, who were directed from Odessa Medical Institute and. Also at the same time Dziz Ivan took part in the organization of the department, who had previously worked as an assistant at Lviv Medical University.



    The next period of department’s development is related with Professor Anysym Khazanov. He has contributed much to the formation and establishment of scientific school for studying morphogenesis and pathogenesis of chronic lung disease and prosection service in the region.



    From 1974 till 1985 the department was headed by Associate Professor of Pathology Boris Dubchak. He continued to implement in practice the ideas of Professor Khazanov:  morphometric studies of sectional material, and introduced  into the learning process new technologies: linear, branched and constructive methods of monitoring students' knowledge.



    In 1985, Associate Professor of Pathology Dutchak started to work as a dissector at  pathoanatomical bureau and the department was headed by Professor Anatoly Zavalniuk, who compiled forensic diagnostic features of agricultural injuries.



    In 1990 through the competition Professor Yuri Vikalyuk was elected as the head of the department. At that time the Department was improving the traditional methods of teaching students, and the main direction of scientific research was to  find morphological characteristics of lymphodinamic disorders.



    The Department of Forensic Medicine from 1959 to 1961was headed by its organizer -  Associate Professor Steshyts. In 1978 association with the Department of Pathology occured and Associate Professor Anatoly Mukhanov became the head of the united department.  He  developed the diagnostic classification of piercing and blunt objects and  summed them  to monothematic atlas of forensic medicine.



    Since 1994 the department is headed by a graduated student of Ternopil Medical Institute - prof. Bodnar Yaroslav.


    The main educational and scientific achievements of the department for the 50th anniversary are:


    A pathoanatomical and forensic museum which comprises about 2000 macropreparations, exposure is used in the learning process that helps students to apperceive the program material, as well as in educational work among schoolchildren.



    A bank of micropreparations of pathological anatomy and forensic medicine is used not only in workshops as illustrations, but also by young assistants and students to improve their skills  of histopathological diagnosis.


    The morphology of chronic lung disease pulmonary heart was studied and three monographs in this theme are published.


    The pathogenesis of lymphogenous sclerosis of liver and lungs was developed (PhD thesis).


    Developed and implemented into practice the morphometric methods of diagnosing heart diseases (PhD thesis).


    The pathology of the major infectious diseases was studied (published monograph).


    Forensic classification of thorny i blunt objects, automotive and railway injuries, their diagnostic features were developed (themed atlas was published).


    Expert criteria of fatal agricultural injuries were developed.


    Endocrine function of the heart was  scientificaly proved (PhD thesis).


CURRENT PERIOD AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT


The Department of Pathology with the sectional course and forensic medicine is a  part of educational and scientific institute of morphology



Thanks to the University administration a complete renovation of premises and equipment was made.




Classes are bright, equipped with multimedia technology and plasma TVs, providing analysis and demonstration of micropreparations for all audiences.



    Teachers’ workplace is equipped with computer and video system, which makes it possible to transfer images from the microscope to the plasma TV.


    Over the past five years by the department achieved:


    Reference: Single day of studying, Z-system, OSCE, distance learning, teaching materials (students can find through  intranet schedule; materials for lessons’ preparation, independent work on the album, seminars; micropreparations; textbooks; participation in the contest (diplomas).


    Scientific work: taking part in preparation of the sectional material, studying micropreparations. Photo and illustrations of the achievements and comment of them. Participation in scientific conferences.


    Clinical work. Photo or video which are conducting clinical conferences, video of cutting biopsy material and studying of histological preparations and video of the laboratory intraoperative diagnosis.


    Achievements of students.  Diplomas and ratifications.


Teaching staff


Head of the Department - Yaroslav Bodnar

Degree - MD

Academic status - Professor

E-mail - bodnarya@tdmu.edu.ua

Education:

In 1970 finished higher medical education in Ternopil Medical Institute: graduate student (1970-1972), Assistant (1972-1993), Associate professor (1993-1994), Professor (since 1994), Head of the Department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine (since 1994).

Research activities:

Candidate of Medical Sciences since 1974. Subject of the thesis - "Pathological anatomy and pathogenesis of some issues of chronic nonspecific bronchopneumonia".

Doctor of Medicine from 1992. The theme of the thesis - "Peculiarities of morphological manifestations of heart in violation of water-electrolyte body"

Author of over 312 scientific papers, received nine patents, co-author of 4 books, 6 textbooks, 2 monographs, 3 electronic manuals.

Had trained 1 Doctor of Medical Sciences, 10 Candidates of Medical Sciences.

Main directions of scientific activity: the problem of morphological manifestations of the pathology of the lungs, heart and stomach.

Awards:

Diploma of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine (1970, 1994, 2002).

Membership in scientific societies:

Member of the T. Shevchenko Scientific Society (2002), Ukrainian Association of Pathologists (1993), the International Academy of Integrative Anthropology (since 1993), member of the Specialized Academic Council at Lviv National Medical University(since 2001).


Professor of the Department – Petro Selskiy

Degree - MD

Academic status – Associate Professor

E-mail - selskyy@tdmu.edu.ua

Education:

In 1998 finished higher medical education in I.Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical Academy. Scientific and educational activities are related to the Pathology Department with the sectional course and forensic medicine SHEI " I.Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University": graduate student (2000-2001), Assistant (2001-2005), Associate professor (2005-2012), Professor (since 2012).

Research activities:

Candidate of Medical Sciences from 2005 - thesis - "Morphology background of cervical diseases. Immunological and microbiological aspects".

Doctor of Medicine from 2014 - thesis - "Information quality of management system of training and providing medical care at the primary level"

He is the author of over 80 scientific publications, 3 patents, 1 monograph author, co-author of two textbooks and one monograph.

Main directions of scientific activity: the problem of morphological manifestations of uterine pathology, endocrine system; application of innovative techniques of information in medical research and development of information systems in the preparation of medical specialists.

Awards:

Awarded by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (2012), diplomas of Ternopil Regional Council (2007, 2011).

Membership in scientific societies:

Member of the Association of Pathologists of Ukraine (since 2004).


Associate Professor (head teacher) - Mikolenko Anna

Scientific degree - PhD

Academic status - Associate Professor

E-mail - mykolenko@tdmu.edu.ua

Education:

I.Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical Academy, Medical Faculty, specialty "Medicine"; 1993 - 1999 . 1999 - 2000  - A doctor in Ternopil Regional Hospital for Children.

2002 - 2007 - Post-graduate work in Pediatrics Department (Pediatric Surgery) of I.Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University.

Since December 2010 - Assistant Professor of  the Department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine of I.Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University. Since 2015 - the post of associate professor.

Research activities:

Candidate of Medical Sciences since 2009 - theme of the thesis - "Features of clinical course, treatment and rehabilitation of combined chronic gastroduodenal and hepatobiliary pathology in children against the background of individual states" specialization "Pediatrics." She is the author of 38 scientific papers, co-author of two scientific manual and innovations.

Membership in scientific societies:

Member of the Association of Pathologists of Ukraine since 2012.


Associate Professor - Voloshin Volodimir

Scientific degree - PhD

Academic status – Associate professor

E-mail - voloshynv@tdmu.edu.ua

Education:

In 1992 graduated from the Ternopil State Medical Institute and till 1995 continued his studies in postgraduated cources at the department of human anatomy. In the period from 1995 to 2001 he worked as assistant of Human Anatomy Department; 2001-2006 - associate professor of Human Anatomy Department; since 2007 - Associate Professor of the Department of Pathology  with sectional course and forensic medicine.

In 1997-2001 was the hed of the Council of young scientists of the University.

Research activities:

In 1996 -  thesis on " Morphofunctional restructuring of skeletal bones during a total of dehydration in the age aspect"

He is co-author of three textbooks on human anatomy, 2 manuals and 1 atlas of Pathology.

He is the author and co-author of over 200 scientific papers.

Prepared 1 PhD.

Research interests cover the problem of adaptive transformations of bones and the impact of chronic stress load on the structural and functional condition of endocrine organs.

Awards:

Winner of Ukrainian Academy of Science in biology, chemistry and medicine, was awarded the Diploma of II degree (2003); Scholar of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine for young scientists (1998-2000)

Membership in scientific societies:

Member of the Academy of Sciences of National Progress of Ukraine since 1998

Member of the Association of Pathologists of Ukraine.


Associate Professor - Holovata Tetiana

Scientific degree - PhD

Academic status – Associate Professor

E-mail - golovata@tdmu.edu.ua

Education:

In 1979 she finished the higher medical education in the Ternopil Medical Institute. In 1979-1980 she passed internship on therapy at the Rivne city hospital and until 1981 worked as a district physician. From 01.04.1982 to 01.02.1994 worked as a forensic expert at Ternopil regional bureau of forensic medical examination, and from 01.02. 1994 moved to work in the Ternopil State Medical University as assistant of the Department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine (1994-2010). Since 2010 - associate professor of the department.

Research activities:

Phd from 2008 with thesis - "State of the stroma and microvessels of the heart while chronic alcohol intoxication."

She is the author of over 60 scientific papers, received one declarative patent for utility model and 3 certificate of registration of copyright ,co-author of 2 books, 1 manual and 1 fundamental atlas.

Main directions of scientific activity: the problem of morphological manifestations of heart and bladder disease.

Membership in scientific societies:

Member of the Association of Pathologists of Ukraine.


Associate Professor - Valentyn Franchuk

Scientific degree - PhD

Academic status – Associate professor

E-mail - franchukv@tdmu.edu.ua

Valentin Franchuk (04.11.1966.)   graduated from of Ternopil Medical Institute (1989), and now is the Head of the course of Forensic Medicine of Ternopil State Medical University, PhD in specialty "forensic science" since 2007, associate professor, forensic expert of second qualifying category, 4th qualification grade. The author of the first in Ukraine manual on forensic medicine (in English) for foreign students in higher educational institutions III-IV grades of accreditation (2011); co-author of Ukraine's first e-book on forensic science for students in higher educational institutions (2005).

Main research areas:

· Forensic examination in cases of unexpected death;

· Forensic features of violent death;

· Law aspects of medical practice.

Associate Professor V. Franchuk designed and implemented the learning process the electronic information system for training on forensic medicine and monitoring students’ as required ECTS (in a software environment Moodle).

He is the author of 80 scientific and educational works in forensic medicine.


Associate Professor - Dacko Tamara

Scientific degree - PhD

Academic status – Associate professor

E-mail - datsko_t@tdmu.edu.ua

Education:

In 1992 she graduated from Ternopil State Medical Institute. She began her career in Novograd Volynskyi at inter-district territorial medical association (Zhytomyr region). Since 1994 - senior laboratory assistant, since 1995 - Assistant Professor of Pathological Anatomy. Since 1997, she combined scientific work with treatment, working in the department of diagnostic biopsy  of Ternopil regional oncologic dispensary.

Research activities:

She has he scientific degree PhD since 2000. Subject of the thesis is  "Effect of cardiotoxic dose of adrenaline on metabolism and morphology of liver in animals with different resistance to hypoxia."

She is the author of over 100 scientific papers and 14 patents and certificates of registration of copyright. Also she is the member of the Association of Pathologists of Ukraine.


Associate professor - Furdela Mykhailo

Scientific degree - PhD

Academic status – Associate professor

E-mail - furdela@tdmu.edu.ua

In 1992 he graduated from medical college in Kremenets. In 2001 he graduated from Ternopil State Medical Academy. In 2004-2007 he studied in postgraduate school at the Department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine. In November 2007, he became the scientific degree PhD with the  thesis on "Structural and functional features of heart, conduction of its rhythm system under the influence of conductional disorders caused by diabetes", supervisor - professor Bodnar Ya.. He is the doctor of second qualifying category "pathological anatomy".

Since December 2007 he is an assistant at the Department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine, in 2012 was elected to contest the post of associate professor, in 2014 he received the academic rank of associate professor in the Department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine.

Since December 2009 he is Acting deputy dean of foreign students faculty.

He is the author and co-author of 54 scientific and educational works, 1 manual. Main directions of scientific activity: clinical and morphological features of heart and its conduction system in various endocrinopathies.


Associate professor – Trach-Rosolovska Svitlana

Scientific degree - PhD

Academic status – Associate professor

E-mail - trachros@tdmu.edu.ua

She received higher medical education in Ternopil State Medical Academy. She passed internship on specialty "forensic examination" at the Kiev Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education. During 2004-2006 she studied in clinical residency specializing in "forensic science" at the Department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine of Ternopil State Medical University.

She is the doctor of the highest qualification category in "forensic examination". Also she is a forensic medical expert in forensic examination of victims, defendants and other persons  at Ternopil regional bureau of forensic medical examination (in terms of external pluralism).

She began her research and teaching career in 2008 as an assistant of the Department of Human Anatomy at Ternopil State Medical University, since 2009 - assistant, since 2012 - associate professor of  the department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine.

Research activities:

She became the scientific degree PhD in 2012. In 2014 she was awarded the rank of associate professor in the Department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine. She is the author or co-authored of more than 40 scientific and educational works, 1 patent for utility model, 1 manual.


Associate Professor - Orel Yuri

Scientific degree - PhD

Academic status – Associate professor

E-mail — orel_yum@tdmu.edu.ua

He graduated from medical faculty of Ternopil State Medical Academy in 2002. After internship he worked in the department of pediatric pathology of Ternopil regional pathoanatomical bureau. The doctor of the highest qualification category in "Children's pathological anatomy." Since September 2008 he was an assistant of the Department of Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine, in 2012 was elected to the post of associate professor.

He has the scientific degree PhD since 2007 with thesis: "Comparative anatomical aspects of blood flow to the placenta and lungs at various stages of placental insufficiency."

He is the author and co-author of 87 scientific and educational works, 2 patents, 1 manual.

Main directions of scientific activity: clinical and morphological characteristics of the perinatal period diseases, structural and functional changes in the placenta under the influence of various pathogenic factors.


Assistant of the department – Andrij Slyva

E-mail - slivaaf@tdmu.edu.ua

In 2008 he graduated from Sumy State University, Medical Institute, specialty "Medicine", qualification - doctor. In 2009 he graduated from Sumy State University, Medical Institute, specialty "Medicine", qualification - master, pathomorphism. He upheld his master's thesis on the theme "Clinical and morphological characteristics of thyroid disease in the population of Sumy region."

In 2009 he finished internship on specialty "Pathomorphology", worked as head of pathoanatomical department at Bilopilska Hospital.

From 2014 he is the postgraduate of the department of Pathological anatomy with sectional course and forensic medicine, performs dissertation on "Pathomorphological features of endometrial hyperplastic processes pre- and women of menopausal age", supervisor - Professor P. Selskiy.


Assistant of the department - Yurik Igor

Academic status - postgraduate

E-mail - iyuryk@ukr.net

Education and employment:

In 1984 he graduated from the Kremenets Medical College. He worked as the head of medical assistant - obstetric point at Ivachiv, Ternopil region. He started to study at the Ternopil State Medical Institute in 1986 and graduated in 1992. he was assigned to work in the Volyn region, passed internship on specialty of surgery and worked as a surgeon in Rozhyshche central district hospital by 2006. Since 2006 he worked as a deputy chief doctor.

Research activities:

Since 2013 he is postgraduate at the Department of pathological anatomy with sectional course and forensic medicine. The theme of the thesis is "Features of remodeling of the vascular bed of the lower extremities in rats with hyperuricemia in pre- and reproductive age", supervisor - Prof. Ja. Bodnar.

Awards:

Diploma of Volyn Regional Council (2012).


Assistant of the department - Hladiy Olena

Academic status - postgraduate

E-mail - kripkaoi@tdmu.edu.ua

In 2010 she graduated from Ternopil State Medical University. In 2012 she finished internship on specialty "Internal Diseases", worked as a district physician, was the head of outpatient department at Skalat Hospital.

In 2012 she became a qualification level "Master of medicine", upheld her master's thesis on the theme "Syndrome of endotoxemia in chronic obstructive disease, especially the pathogenesis and clinical course." From 2013 she is the postgraduate at the department of Pathological anatomy with sectional course and forensic medicine, performs dissertation on the theme "Age peculiarities of heart remodeling under the pressure of hyperuricemia."


Laboratory assistant – Iryna Solomko

Irina Solomko graduated from Lviv Veterinary Institute in 1985. Since February 1988 works at the Department of  Pathology with sectional course and forensic medicine as a laboratory assistant.








The development of pathological anatomy as an applied medical science

    The formation of pathological anatomy as an applied (clinical) medical science is connected with the development of anatomy. The description of organ structure during offender autopsy was the first resource for pathological observation. Throughout the Middle Ages the number of autopsies was very limited what inhibited the transition from scholastic medical knowledge to practical. English doctor and naturalist William Harvey (1578-1657) said that the study of the human body of one person who died because of the disease is more important for the development of medicine that the autopsy of 10 people who were hanged.  

    Paracelsus, whose real name was Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim (1493-1541), said: “The first teacher in medicine is the body and nature. They teach and show, you can learn on it, you can learn from it, but you can’t learn from yourself because your own fantasy is just a distortion of the truth. Practical medicine should derive from theory and theory should be derived from practice. Just reading books have never made someone a doctor, the doctor is created by practice. Your teacher should be the eyes of an experiment and research”.

William Harvey Paracelsus

    The importance of pathological anatomy in the formation of clinical thinking was firstly described by Italian pathologist Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771).

    He said that if not to compare the autopsy data with clinical features of the disease then it is the wasted autopsy. He described morphological features of syphilitic damage of skin, bones, liver, brain, liver cirrhosis and yellow liver dystrophy, lung tuberculosis, structural features of heart and endocardium damage in case of angina pectoris, brain in case of apoplexy as the consequence of vessels damage. He also described the epileptic seizures which were caused by the disturbances of heart rhythm, difference between blood clot and post-mortem clot. Due to Morgangi’s work which was showed in three-volume edition “Guide Pathology” («Handbuch der speciellen pathologischen Anatomie», 18420-1846), systematization of approximately 30 000 autopsy observations which were done by Austrian pathologist Carl Rokitansky (1804-1878) the pathological anatomy became a separate science.  The main reason of pathological changes Rokitansky considered the violation of chemical composition of body fluids – dyscrasia. He considered the local pathological process as the feature of general disease. He was the first to describe the perforation of ulcer, bowel stenosis, aortic rupture, congenital defects of heart septum.

    If to consider Morgangi as the founder of organ theory, Rokitansky – of humoral theory, then Rudolf Virchow (1821— 1902) is the father of the cell theory. By using the structural principle of body building he came to the conclusion that the existence of a separate body is the sum of lives of cell autonomous territories and first reason of the disease is its’ damage. It was the step forward compared to tissue theory and humoral pathology of Rokitansky. Cell theory of disease development widespread and didn’t lose its significance in our time. The main scientific provision of cellular pathology Virchow posted in «Archiv für pathol. Anatomie u. Physiologie u. für klin. Medicin» which is very famous and is still published.      

C. Rokitanskyi         R. Virchow

    R. Virchow emphasized the methodology of teaching pathological anatomy, dissection technique, general organization of prosection and history of medicine. More than 100 of his publications were dedicated to the characteristics and pathogenesis, common terminology and classification of pathological processes and important human diseases. By using microscopic method R. Virchow was the first who described the pathological anatomy of inflammation, embolism, thrombosis, phlebitis, leukemia, fatty amyloidosis, tuberculosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore Virchow can be considered as the founder of contemporary pathological anatomy.


The creation and development of Ukrainian pathomorphological school in the system of medical faculties of first universities on Ukraine territories

    The history of the formation of Ukrainian pathological anatomy school reaches the creation of centers of scientific progress in universities of Eastern Europe, primarily in Lviv (20 January 1661) - now Lviv National University; Kharkiv Imperial University (17 November 1804) - now V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University; St. Vladimir Kyiv University (8 November 1833) - now Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University; Imperial Novorossiysk University (May 1, 1865) - now I.I. Mechnikov Odessa  National University. The founders of the national school of pathogical anatomy were considered Ergard Ehidi and Danylo Samoylovych. According to the first documentary sources E. Ehidi, a doctor of Izium border hospital in Kharkiv province in 1737-39 during the war Russia and Austria against Turkey performed 7 autopsies of patients who died because of plague. In 1770 the plague became endemic and captured most of the cities of the right- and left-bank Ukraine. In 1754 G. Potemkin invited D. Samoilovych who was the one of the founders of epidemiology. The aim was to eliminate plague as Samoilovych had an experience in it acquired during the Russian-Turkish war.

    D. Samoilovych was one of the first who widely practiced in Europe the autopsies of people who died from plague. The main task of the autopsies he considered to find "... where the deadly poison in located the body."           He believed that the main cause of death was the damage of heart, as its cavities were extended and filled with a yellow substance like fat. The results of his research were described in the first scientific work devoted to pathological anatomy of plague "Short description of microscopic research on poison, which was conducted in Kremenchug by Danylo Samoilovych (1976).

    A significant role in the development of medicine in Ukraine and pathological anatomy service in particular was the activity of Panaiota Condoidi (1710-1760) who was holding the role of head-doctor and lived in Ukraine for some time. After he became acknowledged with the system of education at Kiev Academy, colleges in Chernihiv, Kharkiv, Pereyaslav, he introduced in medical schools professors and their assistants, the program of curation of sick people by the students with further involvement into operations and postmortem autopsy, teaching obstetrics and gynecology, trained midwives. He also founded the first medical library.

    In 1754, while holding the position of director of the medical office he prepared "Instructions given to junior hospital doctors of the general hospitals”.

    Chronologically, the first university in Eastern Europe in Ukraine was founded in Lviv. In its structure there was opened the first higher medical school in Western Ukraine, which was preparing surgeons, barbers, pharmacists. With the assistance Andzhei Krupinskyi (the author of the first printed textbook on medicine in Ukraine "Description of disease"), it was incorporated into the newly created Medical Faculty. In 1939 the medical faculty of Lviv University was reorganized in Lviv State Medical University (now D. Halytsyi Lviv National Medical University).

    An important contribution into the improvement of the teaching of pathological anatomy at Lviv Medical University was done by such prominent scientists as A.Obzhut, Z. Dmohovskyi, V. Novitskyi, Z. Albert, M.V. Voino-Yasenetskyi, Ye. H. Palchevskyi, D. Zerbino.


    Professor Andrew Obzhut (1851-1910) was the student of the founder of Czechoslovak school of pathologists Yaroslav Hlava. During 1896-1910 he was the Head of the Department of Pathology in Lviv Medical University. He read the first lecture for the students of 3rd course entitled "The significance of pathological anatomy for medical education" and made the first dissection. He created an archive of dissections, which is stored and supplemented until now. It was the beginning of scientific life of one of the oldest institutions of pathological anatomy in Ukraine.     
    A.Obzhut said to his students and doctors that the deeper knowledge of pathological anatomy you have, the more confidence in diagnosis, better individualization and rational treatment, and more specific epicrisis you achieve. His scientific achievements were summarized in several publications: "About the role of blood in causing inflammation" (1887); "About giant cells in inflammatory infiltrates and some tumors" (1887); "About histology of Bright's disease"; "The role of pathological medicine for medicine" (1897); "New data on histology of amyloid degeneration" (1900). Together with his teacher he also published "Handbook of Pathological Anatomy (1901).

    From 1912 to 1920 the department of Pathology was headed by the graduate of Medical faculty of Warsaw University professor Zdzislaw Dmohovski. The main areas of the research were the etiopathogenesis and pathomorphology of larynx pathology,  tuberculosis, improvement of sectional technique. He also suggested the theory of malignant tumors, described the morphogenesis of inflammatory exudates.

    During 1920-1941 the department was headed by the graduate of Medical faculty of the Jagiellonian (Krakow) University Witold Nowicki (1878-1941). The main areas of the research were the pathological anatomy and experimental therapy of cancer, particularly lung cancer; pathophysiology of hormonal regulation, in particular, the study of the effect of adrenaline on chromaffin tissue of adrenal glands and morphology of kidneys; pathological anatomy of infectious diseases (dysentery, typhoid fever, paratyphus), rhinoskleromas, connective tissue in case of infectious diseases; the study of cerebral artery aneurysms, congenital bowel defect, appendix pathology, liver abscesses caused by roundworm, etc .; the history of medical education and science in Lviv. V. Novitsky was shot by the German invaders in the night from 3 to 4 July 1941in Lviv, together with 25 scientists, mostly Poles, along with his son, an assistant professor of microbiology Jerzy.

    During the Nazi occupation the department was headed by Associate Professor Zinovii Albert (1941-1942), Associate Professor Helena Shuster (1942-1944) who were Nowicki’s students. During 1945 - 1945 department was headed by Sigmund Albert.

    In the difficult post-war years (1946-1952) the head of the department was the graduate of Medical Faculty of Central Asian University Mikhail Voino-Yasnetskyi. Under his leadership, the department staff strongly updated teaching and research activities, reorganized prosection in western Ukraine. The areas of the research included: pathological anatomy of relapsing fever, dysentery, scleroma. It was established that the source of Mikulich cells in case of rhinoscleroma is macrophage system. M. Voino-Yasnetskyi published the monograph "Pathological anatomy and pathogenesis of malaria" (1950) and the paragraph for pathological anatomy textbook.

    In 1952 the department was headed by the graduate of the Kyiv Medical Institute, the student of Academician M.F.Melnykov-Razvedenkov - professor Yevhen Palchevskyi (1899-1966). The research of the department staff during the period of his leadership was aimed at clarifying the pathology of rhinoscleroma, rickettsiosis, cancer, goiter, connective tissue at different dysgormonosis, neoplastic and infectious processes.


    In 1966 the Scientific Council of the Lviv State Medical Institute chose to head the Department of Pathological Anatomy a leading clinical pathologists of Ukraine, the founder of a new section of pathological anatomy - pathology of the lymphatic system, professor Dmitry Zerbino (born in 1926), who was the Corresponding Academician of NAS and AMS of Ukraine, the graduate of Orenburg and Chernivtsi Medical Institute. His doctoral thesis was entitled: "Pathological Anatomy and pathogenesis of some kinds of lymphatic insufficiency".  D. Zerbino defended it in 1965 at Lviv Medical Institute.

    D. Zerbino was the first to explain the thepry of lymphatic insufficiency based on the structural changes in detail studied pathological anatomy of elephantiasis (chronic lymphedema), defined resorptive, barrier-eliminative and transport functions of the lymphatic system. The end of the cycle of these studies was the monograph "General pathology of lymphatic system" .

    It was also developed the issue of microcirculation ("disseminated intravascular coagulation" - Medicine, 1987),  Non-atherosclerosis dependent genesis of vessels – vasculitis and angiopathies  - “Vasculitis and angiopathy"  (Health, 1977) and the collection of the symposium materials "Vasculitis, angiopathy, angiodysplasia" (Lviv, 1983).

    D. Zerbino suggested the scheme of environmental pathologies. Anthropogenic environmental situations and acute environmental illnesses were reflected in monographies "Anthropogenic environmental disasters" (1991), "Chernivtsi chemical disease: a new ecological disease?" (1998, with A.M. Serdiuk) and "Environmental disasters in the world and in Ukraine" (2005, with M.R. Hzhehotskyi).

    He published a series of articles and two monographs on the problems of scientific work - "Scientific school as a phenomenon" (1994) and "Scientific school: leader and students" (2001).

    On January 17, 1805 one of the oldest universities in Eastern Europe - Kharkiv Imperial University was opened. First 4 faculties also included medical. In 1921, the Women's Medical Institute (founded in 1910), which was part of the structure of the Imperial was reorganized into Kharkiv State Medical University, present Kharkiv National Medical University. The representatives of the Kharkiv pathological anatomy school were D. F. Liambl, V.P.Krylov, M.F.Melnykova-Rozvyedyenkova, H.Ye.Zeman, A.I.Strukov, H.L. Derman and A.F.Yakovtsova.

    D. Liambl (1824-1895), originally a Czech, a graduate of the Prague University. He studied pathological anatomy thanks to Yan Dlahuhf and former assistant K. Rokytanskyi. From 1860 to 1871 he taught normal and pathological anatomy at Kharkov University. His scientific achievements were summarized in "Pathological anatomy" in the form of notes, engraved in stone. In 1859 he described the small intestine flagellum parasites, known nowadays as Lamblia intestinalis. Besides by his name called "Lamblia villis” - a symptom of late phase of non-bacterial endocarditis which he described in the article «Papillare exkreszenzen an der semilunar-klappe der aorta » (1856). In collaboration with Joseph Leshchner he published in German "Observations and research in the field of pathological anatomy and histology» (Beobachtungen und Studien aus dem Gebiete der pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie). He also described Lamblia muscles (better known under the term Bowman’s muscles) - smooth muscle fibers of ciliary body which pull the capsule of the lens during accommodation. After moving in 1871 to the University of Warsaw D. Liambl, the department during this year was headed by Professor of General Pathology I.M. Obolenskyi. Soon the Council of professors of Kharkiv University suggested the graduate of S. Petersburg Imperial Medical Surgical Academy – V.P.Krylov (1841 -1906).

       

    V.P. Krylov was a founder of the theory of anthropometry and figure types. He studied pathological anatomy of syphilitic lung, and plague. His favorite student was V.K. Vysokovych and recognized his worthy for being a professor of the department. But this time retired the head of Department of Pathological Anatomy at the St. Vladimir University of Kyiv. V.K. Vysokovych was approved by this department. Following the resignation of Professor V.P. Krylov the Professors Council elected the associate professor of Moscow University Nikolai F. Melnikov-Razvedenkov (1866-1937). His research focused on the study of pathological anatomy of anthrax, and actinomycosis. He discovered a new method of preserving micropreparations with preserving color and described feasibility of methods of Kayzerlinh, Pik and Iores. His method was the base for embalming the body of Lenin. He owns "Practical Course of Pathological Histology" (1909, 1916), “Actinomycosis of CNS” (1930), "Pathohistology of edema" (1934), "Pathomorphology of allergic processes."  In 1927 he was elected as the Academician of the USSR. In 1932, the Academic Council 1st Kharkiv Medical Institute elected H.E. Zeman (1896-1936) as a head and professor of pathological anatomy department.

    During a short period of his management (1932-1937) of the department he published 35 scientific papers concerning the pathology of the allergies, tuberculosis and toxicity. In February, 1938 it was announced by the Academic Council of the 1st Kharkiv Medical Institute competition for the vacant position for the head of the department of pathological anatomy. The competition was attended by such famous morphologists as A.I. Strukov, P.S. Sypovskyi, F.Y. Pozharyskyi and S.M. Derezhanov. The victory got Anatolii Strukov (1901-1988) - a graduate of Voronezh University, the student of professors and pathologists O.I. Abrykosov and V.H. Shtefko.  The main direction of research was pathomorphology of tuberculosis. During the period of his leadership the Department of Kharkiv Medical Institute obtained new data on the morphogenesis of primary tuberculosis in children and secondary tuberculosis. The tuberculosis of bones was reproduced in experiments on rabbits. From 1941 to 1944 members of the department continued their activities after the evacuation to Chkalov (now Orenburg). Since 1945, he continued research and community work in Moscow. The field of his interests included the question of the pathology of atherosclerosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, collagen diseases. For a series of works on rheumatic diseases pathology he was awarded with the Lenin Prize. A.I. Strukov was the hero of Socialist Labor, Academician of the USSR, a member of the German Academy of Naturalists "Leopoldina", honored scientist.

    Since 1945 the Department of Pathology of Kharkiv Medical University was led by his students – H.L. Derman (from 1945 to 1971), A.F. Yakovtsova (from 1971 to 2009) and Vladimir D. Markovski (since 2009). H.L. Derman (1890-1983) was a student of professor S.L. Erlikh. His scientific papers were devoted to cancer and cardiovascular pathology, the study of reticulo-endothelial system, experimental and morphological study of the role of the lungs, liver and spleen in lipid metabolism, adipose tissue morphology of fetuses and newborns. He also studied the morphogenesis of tuberculosis, studied and described Turk cells in patients with typhus, morphology of the gastrointestinal tract in scarlet fever, Anichkov myositis in children under infectious diseases, created the classification abdominal-typhoid processes.

    In 1971 the department of pathological anatomy was led by A.F. Yakovtsova (born in 1933). She was the founder of her own scientific school whose main focus is the study of pathological processes in the system of "mother-placenta- fetus". She was awarded by the Association of Pathologists Ukraine with H. M. Minha medal. The main scientific works of A.F.Yakovtsova are: "Antenatal fetal death" (1974), "Large fetuse" (1991), "Pathological Anatomy of immune system at multiple pregnancies" (2002).

In 1832, Nicholas the 1st abolished Medical-Surgical Academy (now Vilnius) and Volyn Lyceum (m. Kremenets) and translocated them to Kyiv, where created a new material base at institutite of higher education (now National University of Taras Shevchenko). The decision to create the structure in its medical faculty was adopted in 1840 and the creation of Pathophysiology Department with Pathological Anatomy was done in 1842.

    The first lecture on Pathology was read by Professor M.I. Kozlov (1814-1889), a graduate of Kazan University. He was among the first in Russian Empire to introduce histochemical analysis to determine the nature of disease processes, systematized the collection of 555  dry and 684 alcohol micropreparations at Kiev University. However, the material base of the department was poor. Due to the effort of Yu. I. Matson in 1857 the room for autopsies was built.

    Yu. I. Matson (1817-1885) was the graduate of University of Derpt. With the assistance of the Kyiv school district trustee he started the systematized autopsies at university and developed prosection in Kyiv. He was the first to start teaching students by using the microscope in Ukrainian universities and actually started the course of pathohistology. The main scientific work of Yu. I. Matson was devoted to microscopic structure of tissue inflammation, diseases of the kidneys and liver. Following the resignation of Yu. I. Matson the head of the department of became H.M. Mnikh.

    H.M. Minh (1835-1896) conducted experiments on himself and proved the fact of contamination with the relapsing fever by blood-sucking insects. He also published a monograph "Plague in Russia" in 1898, which showed the peculiarities of the plague. Several of his works were devoted to the study of leprosy ("Leprosy in southern Russia during1884-1887”, “The history of leprosy in the Tver region", 1894) and demonstrated that intestinal and pulmonary form of anthrax have the same origin. Thanks to the efforts of H. M. Minh the Department of Pathology acquired higher development and was reorganized in 1889 into Pathological Institute of the University which existed in that status until 1936. In memory of his great work Association of Pathologists of Ukraine launched the highest award of the association – H.M. Minh medal in 2002. In 1895 Pathological Institute was led by a student of Professor V. Krylov – V.K. Vysokovych (1854-1912).

    His scientific works were devoted to the experimental study of infectious diseases. He also started teaching about the protective role reticulo-endothelial system, used mass vaccination against typhoid fever, proved the microbial etiology of cerebrospinal meningitis. He participated in expeditions to fight epidemics of plague and cholera. His main scientific achievements were showed in works: "Sarcoma of face and bones of the skull." (1896); "The case of multiocular Echinococcus of liver" (1899); "Two cases of primary liver sarcoma" (1900); "About Cholera" (1905); "Pathological Anatomy" (1911); "Pathological histology" (1911). In 1913 the department of pathological anatomy of Pathological Institute of the University of St. Volodymyr was led by the student of V.K. Vysokovych - Professor V.M. Konstantynovych. His scientific papers were aimed at studying the pathogenesis and pathological anatomy of dystrophy, inflammation, tuberculosis and rhinoscleroma.

    In 1921, the department of pathological anatomy Pathological Institute was led by a graduate of St. Petersburg Military Medical Academy - Pavlo Kucherenko (1882-1936). His doctoral thesis was concerned "To question about accumulation of glycogen in terms of different experimental conditions" and was defended in 1918. The scientific focus of the department was aimed at studying the problems that were initiated by V.K. Vysokovych. Besides the department continued studies of the pathology of the endocrine system, cancer, rhinoscleroma; conducted research of the centers of endemic goiter in Ukraine.

    Since 1939, for 30 years the department was led by the student of P. O. Kucherenko - honored scientist of USSR, a graduate of the Kyiv State Medical Institute, Professor Ye.I. Chaika (1902-1976). Scientific interest of the department were aimed at clarifying the pathology of connective tissue, reactivity of the nervous system in pathological conditions, age-related changes of internal organs; vascular system of the liver and kidneys in terms of hypertension, experimental influenza.

    During 1939-1941 under the leadership of Ye. I. Chaika the department staff developed a new scientific direction - the state hemo-parenchymal barriers in health and disease. During the Second World War the department was evacuated to Chelyabinsk, where launched the work on the problem of sepsis, alimentary dystrophy and infections. After the war, the main focus of the research team of the department remained the study of connective tissue and histo-hematogenous barriers of internal organs in terms of cardiovascular diseases, infections, surgical pathology. Since 1970, for 20 years the department was led by honored worker of science of USSR, member of the International Academy of Pathology, a graduate of Tomsk Medical Institute, a student of Professor Ye. I. Chaika - Professor O.P.Kyseliova (1918-1995).

    Scientific interest of the department focused on the study of patterns of structural changes and pathogenesis of pathological processes in organs and tissues in ischemic heart disease and the implementation of its pharmacological correction. Based on contemporary achievements of histochemistry, electronic microscopy and morphometry the perspective directions on pathologic component of cardiology, hepatology, gastroenterology, and nephrology were formulated. Main scientific data was published in books: "Nephrosclerosis", "Ultrastructural changes in kidney in terms of hydronephrosis", "Pulmonary heart".

    From 1990 to August 2013 the department of pathological anatomy was led by a graduate of Kyiv Medical Institute, the student of Professor Ye. I. Chaika, honored worker of science of Ukraine, professor, member of the International Academy of Pathology, V.M. Blahodarov (1939- 2013). Main areas of research at the department were the creation of objective criteria to justify the diagnosis and clarify the nature of various pathological processes in cardiovascular diseases, diseases of the respiratory and urogenital system, gastrointestinal tract etc. Based on this data the original version of software training was created in order to improve the teaching work. Together with Lviv, Kharkiv and Kyiv universities the leading role in shaping medical education and pathological anatomical service in Ukraine belongs to the Medical Faculty of Novorossiysk (now Odessa National University).

    Novorossiysk University was founded in 1862 and Medical Faculty - in 1900. The first director and organizer of the Department of Pathological Anatomy in 1902 was the Imperial Moscow University graduate D.P. Kyshenskyi (1858-1933), and since 1913 he became the rector of Novorosiysk University.


    In 1919, the director of the Institute of Pathology, in 1921 - head and professor, graduate of medical faculty of Moscow University was M.M. Tyzenhausen(1877-1945). He devoted his research mainly to the pathology of tumors, influenza, smallpox, infectious jaundice. His major scientific works include: "Abstract diagram on pathological anatomy" (1924); "The program of the general pathological anatomy course. Schemes and Plans "(1928); "Lectures on pathological anatomy, issue 1. Pathological anatomy of acute infectious diseases" (1938); "Short Guide to technique of dissection. Guide for the students of medical universities"(1939).

    In 1944 the department of pathology was led by professor D. M. Hayutin (1896-1957) - graduate of Novorossiysk University and Odessa State Medical Academy. His main scientific works were devoted to pathological anatomy of malignant tumors and helminths. He described ways of metastatic cancer of the ovary, bladder, lung, and rare cases of congenital heart disease.

    In 1956, the Academic Council of the Odessa State Medical Institute elected professor Yevhen Uspenskyi (1901-1977) as head of the department of pathological anatomy.  The department worked on the pathology of the nervous system, morphogenesis and geographical pathology of atherosclerosis.


    In 1974 the department head became N. M. Kovryzhko (born in 1922) – a graduate of Kyiv Medical Institute. Her doctoral thesis concerned to the "Changes in chrome affine system in connection with the age and pathology (Morphological and histological studies)".  N.M.Kovryzhko defended it in October, 1970 in Kyiv Medical Institute. The department worked on the morphology of the adrenal glands, central nervous system and internal organs in treated and untreated electrical and pain shock, studied the effect of the standard and synthesized tranquilizers onto the organism.

    From 1984 to 2006 the head of the department of pathology was a graduate of Odessa Medical Institute, member of the International Academy of Pathology – A.I. Danylenko (born in 1937). He founded a scientific school in Odessa National Medical University on the study of morphogenesis of placental insufficiency and congenital malformations. The mentioned research area is still successfully continued by the department led by his student V.O. Sytnikova (born in 1960). In 2008, she successfully defended her doctoral thesis "Pathomorphological features of fetoplacental complex during hypoxia and fetal growth retardation syndrome".